The end of the rib is pre-bored with an awl to avoid splitting.
I have mentioned that woodworkers seem not to have used screw vices so I have based my bench top on this illustration from the Nuremburg Hausbuch, showing a joiner working at bench with a three-peg system and other pegs to use as stops to hold wood for planing.
One of the 16th century inventories mentions sword tips in use as scrapers.
Old chisels tend to be thinner than modern ones, perhaps because steel was so expensive, but this makes them easier to sharpen, as there is less metal to take away. The rib is compared often with the mould.
Pickens, Folk Musical Instruments of Turkey has useful photographs of a Turkish saz maker at work, bending ribs with a bending iron shaped like a trowel, which he presses down on a rib lying on his bench, chiselling bent ribs to size, then planing them like a cooper that is, on an "upside down" plane which held on the bench, with the blade projecting slightly from it; the maker holds the wood to be planed and moves it over the plane, rather than moving the plane over the woodand fitting ribs over a ribbed body mould.
Finishing peg box Now I decided it was time to tidy up the end clasp. Next, I am gluing the back on the peg box after it had been planed flat. Sawing the pegbox to length.
The recess at the back of the bridge was marked with a knife and finished with a chisel. This worked, but probably created more unnecessary mess and glue to be cleaned up and was quite "fiddly" to do, picking up and gluing the small pieces.
Boring the hole for the iron nail Once the hole is established in the neck, it can be continued without the body as a guide, frequently using the body to check the hole has not wandered.
Here I am using compasses to mark the ends on the tapered neck, perpendicular to a previously marked centre line. Iron nails Here I am boring the pilot hole for the nail in the neck block, using a brace and bit a Victorian shell bit in fact —rather daunting as the hole has to be made very accurately. For instance, while a wooden square may go out of true if you dropped it on the floor, it is light in weight, and would be unlikely to accidentally mark the wood you are working on.
It worked quite well but I plan to make a reamer in future to make this process easier. This axe is resembled the one shown in the Jost Amman "Lautenmacher" woodcut.
Here is a side view of the neck being offered up to the body. A square could not be used as I had already planed a rough taper on the neck. A slightly less well-known disaster than the loss of the Mary Rose is the failure of William Barents" expedition to find the North East Passage to the Indies, by trying to sail round the north coast of Russia.
Cutting out and roughly shaping these parts was probably a job for rural people who had little employment in the winter. Here I am trimming the bridge further with a side axe. I decided to use nails because I have read that some old lutes have small holes under the end clasp.
Pegs and wedges were found to be more effective than the stone this time! Here is the finished joint before assembly. The expedition got caught in the ice inand the explorers were forced to build a shelter and spend a winter in Novaya Zemlya. This axe was purchased mitre slot clamp "eBay" and is from Transylvania.
Frequent testing for flatness of the surface with a straight edge can help here. The belly was then scraped to even out the gradations in thickness this was checked by repeated "candling".
Start of the neck Then I rough planed the neck after splitting and trimming with an axe. I split the bars for the belly from a piece of spruce as I did not have any usable offcuts left over from the making the belly Splitting spruce for the barring Here I am planing the bars straight, to height and slightly oversize, to markings made with the marking gauge.
Trimming neck joint Using compasses to transfer neck joint width measurements onto the body.
Peg clamp Other interesting pictures are in Agricola"s De Re Metallica showing the use of dividers in mitre slot clamp angles and workmen following templates; and this drawing of a workbench, from Nuremberg in including a representation of an early vice, not generally in use for woodwork until much later.
In the spring, they left their camp, only to find their ship had been crushed by the pack ice, and so they had to build a new boat for their return journey.